By Sandra L. Singer
In the interval among the Civil warfare and global warfare I, German universities supplied North American girls with possibilities in graduate education that weren't on hand to them at domestic. This education allowed ladies to compete to a better measure with males in more and more professionalized fields. In go back for such possibilities, those ladies performed a key function in commencing up German universities to all girls. Many committed the remainder of their lives to making greater study and graduate possibilities for different ladies, perpetually altering the process larger schooling in North America.
This examine offers money owed of the significant obstacles encountered via those first ladies scholars in Europe. It records their perseverance and hard-won triumphs and comprises besides the tales of the innovative males who mentored them and fought for his or her rights to raised schooling. by no means earlier than has documentation of such a lot of North American scholars at German-speaking universities been integrated in a single quantity. This selection of tales from girls throughout disciplines makes it attainable to evaluate the really extraordinary nature in their mixed contributions to raised schooling and examine in North the US and Europe.
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Additional info for Adventures Abroad. North American Women at German-Speaking Universities, 1868-1915
111 The fear of foreign competition, especially from the Americans, was based upon some fact. Americans were spending far more than the Germans could on universities and students. They had also developed graduate programs that compared with the best German universities. Further, at the beginning of the 1900s, important private foundations had been established to fund research. 112 But the German government did not impose quotas on American students as it did on the Russians. Further, when restrictions were imposed on all foreign students, these restrictions were formulated to limit in particular the enrollment of Russian Jews.
Particularly moving is the struggle of Emily Dunning Barringer (1876-1961), who became the first woman ambulance surgeon in New York City and later studied in Vienna. 10 Sometimes there were encouraging exceptions. "11 It was almost impossible for a woman to find a faculty position except at a women's medical college. As late as 1912, in a speech held on the Bryn Mawr College campus, Alice Hamilton (1869-1970), one of the leading women physicians in industrial medicine, warned women students that they would still have difficulties obtaining staff positions at hospitals.
Second, anti-Semitism played a part in the hostility towards the Russians, and very few of the North Americans were Jewish. Even at Berlin, where the population of Jewish students of all nationalities was relatively high, there were few North American Jews. Although the percentage of Jews among the Russian students fluctuated with time, it was always higher than the percentage among the North Americans. The third charge against the Russians was their political radicalism. North Americans tended not to be politically active, at 16 Adventures Abroad least while studying abroad.