By Gina Misiroglu
Counterculture, whereas familiar to explain youth-oriented pursuits throughout the Sixties, refers to any try to problem or switch traditional values and practices or the dominant life of the day. This interesting three-volume set explores those hobbies in the US from colonial instances to the current in colourful aspect. "American Countercultures" is the 1st reference paintings to ascertain the effect of countercultural pursuits on American social heritage. It highlights the writings, recordings, and visible works produced by way of those hobbies to coach, encourage, and incite motion in all eras of the nation's heritage. A-Z entries supply a wealth of knowledge on personalities, locations, occasions, techniques, ideals, teams, and practices. The set contains quite a few illustrations, an issue finder, basic resource files, a bibliography and a filmography, and an index.
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Extra resources for American Countercultures: An Encyclopedia of Nonconformists, Alternative Lifestyles, and Radical Ideas in U.S. History
Reconstruction to the Great Migration Despite the end of slavery, cultural and ethnic differences were engrained in eighteenth-and nineteenth-century American culture and remained a source of cultural conflict. African American countercultures following the Civil War largely revolved around the fight to implement the rights guaranteed by the new amendments, the establishment of separate African American institutions, and the continuing desire for African Americans to leave the South. In the aftermath of the war, the rise of the Ku Klux Klan and other terrorist organizations brought an escalation of violence against African Americans.
In 1892 alone, 161 African Americans were lynched; in Memphis, Tennessee, three blacks were murdered for no more than operating a grocery store that competed with white businesses. Ida B. Wells, a journalist and early protester against the laws of segregation, took up an antilynching campaign that lasted for decades. In 1880, African American women formed the Colored Women’s Progressive Franchise Association to promote equal rights for women. In 1896, the National Federation of Afro-American Women joined with the National League of Colored Women to create the National Association of Colored Women, a self-help organization that set up day-care centers and early education centers, protested lynching, and fought for the right to vote.
Like popular tabloid newspapers and magazines, and new forms of entertainment, advertising catered to an emerging and expanding group of people who had lifestyles that fell outside traditional boundaries of class and gender. Yet, while it challenged traditional society, advertising also sought to develop effective means of controlling popular choices, thoughts, and actions. In the twentieth century, a conception of people as susceptible masses that were easily swayed seemed to be borne out not only in rapidly standardizing advertising techniques that claimed, like Claude Hopkins’s book Scientific Advertising (1923), to have discovered universal principles of effective advertising.